Moon Landings 21Space — Volkswagen Apollo

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21Space Planets,Moon Landings,Astronomy,Apollo

Moon Landing

Unmanned

The Soviet Union performed the hard (unpowered) Moon in 1959 with the Luna 2 a feat the U.S. duplicated in with Ranger 4. Since twelve Soviet and U.S. have used braking to make soft landings and scientific operations on the lunar between 1966 and 1976. The accomplished the first soft and took the first pictures the lunar surface on the Luna 9 and 13 missions. The U.S. followed five unmanned Surveyor landings.

The Soviet Union the first unmanned lunar sample return with the 16 probe on September 24, 1970. was followed by Luna 20 and Luna 24 in and 1976. The Luna 17 and Luna 21 successful unmanned rover

Two unmanned landing missions unsuccessful: Luna 23 landed but its scientific equipment then The U.S. Surveyor 4, lost all contact only moments its landing.

More recently, nations have crashed on the surface of the Moon at speeds of 5,000 miles per hour often at precise, planned These have generally end-of-life lunar orbiters because of system degradations, no longer overcome perturbations lunar mass concentrations to maintain their orbit. lunar orbiter Hiten the Moon’s surface on 10 April The European Space Agency a controlled crash impact their orbiter SMART-1 on 3 2006.

India’s Space ISRO performed a controlled impact with its Moon Probe (MIP) on 14 November The MIP was notable for being an ejected from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 orbiter and for performing remote experiments during its descent to the surface. Radio contact the Chandrayaan-1 has been lost and it also crash on the lunar in late 2011 or early Most recently, the Chinese orbiter Chang’e 1 executed a crash onto the surface of the on 1 March 2009.

Manned

On July 20, 1969, television around the world broadcast the grainy image: Neil climbing down the ladder of the Lunar Landing Module and his boot to the surface of the moon. His “That’s one small step for one giant leap for mankind,” forever ingrained in the human The famous landing was a triumphant end to the race.

­But that moment on the surface of the moon was the of many years’ e­fforts by the Soviet and American space The astronauts who first touched the surface had to travel some miles (383,000 kilometers) to their destination, survive the harsh environment and make it to Earth in one piece. It was no easy

As of today, only 12 people — all of men and all of them part of the American program — have walked on the The exclusivity of the elite group soon change, however. other nations’ space and several private space are planning m­ore missions could send humans to the moon within a few years.

The 11 Mission

July 16, 1969 at a.m. EDT — A Saturn V rocket the Apollo 11 spacecraft lifted off John F. Kennedy Space in Florida. It carried the Command Module housing the astronauts and a Module that Armstrong and would use to land on the moon. orbiting the Earth one-and-a-half the Saturn V’s third stage and sent Apollo 11 rocketing the moon. Soon after, the Service Module, Columbia, from the Saturn, flipped and connected nose-to-nose with the Module, Eagle. The joined continued on its path.

July 19 — 11 entered lunar orbit. 24 hours in orbit and a check of the Module’s switches and communication Armstrong and Aldrin separated from Columbia and prepared to their descent to the moon’s Collins remained in Columbia to as the communication link between the Module and mission control on Earth.

July 20 — 102 hours launch, at 4:17 p.m. Armstrong and Aldrin landed in the Sea of a flat lava plain on the surface. Armstrong sent famous message to mission “Houston. Tranquility Base The Eagle has landed.” Just after landing, the two astronauts preparing to abort their immediately and return to the Command Module, just in case an occurred. Then they down.

Six-and-a-half hours Armstrong stepped out of the spacecraft and his first steps on the moon.

Aldrin joined Armstrong on the surface, the pair of astronauts collecting lunar surface As they worked, they the differences in the moon’s gravity to Earth. Because the moon has of Earth’s gravity, the astronauts had to by slowly loping or hopping both feet like a

While on the moon, Armstrong and created a now-famous image as erected the American flag. wasn’t as easy as it looked. The went in the first 5 to 6 inches to 15.2 centimeters) of lunar easily but then met with The astronauts had to lean the flag slightly to get it to stay in the ground.

While on the moon, the two astronauts nearly 50 pounds (23 kilograms) of material, took photos of the near the landing site, set up and pulled two core-tube samples the moon’s surface. They behind a disc with 73 from countries around the a patch from Apollo 1, from Russian cosmonauts and a of the U.S. eagle carrying an branch.

July 21 – 21 hours their arrival, at 1:54 EDT, Armstrong and Aldrin off from the moon, leaving the stage behind. Inside the Module, they traveled into the moon’s orbit, they docked with the Service Module. The Eagle was set

July 24 — Apollo 11 entered the atmosphere at a speed of 36,194 (11,032 meters) per second. It in the Pacific Ocean at 12:51

Profiles of the Lunar Landing

Lunar spacecraft were up of two parts. The Command and Service carried the crew, operations oxygen, water, fuel and system. The Lunar Module the astronauts to the moon.

These were attached to a Saturn V Powered by liquid hydrogen and as as a 36-story building, the Saturn V was up of three stages. The first boosted the rocket through the 38 miles (61 kilometers) of ascent. The stage sped the rocket the upper atmosphere and into the orbit. The third stage the craft to the moon.

Once way, the crew separated the and Service Module from the stage and fired its engine. released the third stage and toward the moon. They turned the module around and it nose-to-nose with the Lunar

Once in lunar orbit, the Module separated from the and Service Module and moved in for a landing with two astronauts The remaining astronaut stayed in the Command and Service Module, the moon.

The astronauts in the Lunar put the engine into full to begin their descent to the More than a dozen thrust motors helped the direction and speed of the descent to the module gently. Because the has no atmosphere, the crew members calculate their altitude and The Lunar Module sent out beams to the moon’s surface to information on the spacecraft’s position.

At just a few thousand feet the moon’s surface, a computer the spacecraft initiated the approach The computer needed to adjust horizontal and vertical speeds to zero, while the crew had to for craters and other formations on the surface to avoid crashing.

The Module commander had the choice of to land automatically using the computers, or manually, depending on how the landing site was. The had learned how to steer the craft a landing during simulations on When the Lunar Module the commander hit the engine-stop button. The went into zero-gravity for a and then the rocket engines on its platform lowered it to the moon’s

When the mission was completed, the Module fired its ascent to escape the moon’s gravitational and lifted off. Because the gravity is lower than of Earth, the spacecraft had to travel 1.4 (2.3 kilometers) per second to the moon’s atmosphere, compared to the 7 per second, or almost 25,000 per hour, (11 or 40,233 kilometers, it had to travel to escape the Earth’s on the way up.

The Lunar Module docked the Command and Service module. The two who had made the landing moved the Lunar Module to the Command and Module with their and any samples they collected the moon. They then the hatch and released the Lunar sending it crashing back to the

The next challenge was to re-enter atmosphere without burning up a meteor. To avoid this, the was coated in an ablative covering burned away as it entered atmosphere and protected the spacecraft from the intense heat.

12

Launch date: Nov. 14,

Crew: Charles Conrad Jr. Richard F. Gordon (Command Pilot), Alan L. Bean Module Pilot)

Landing Sea of Storms

Mission: recovered from the Surveyor 3 to help study the effects of time on in the moon’s environment and proved lunar landings were

Apollo 13

Launch date: 11, 1970

Crew: James A. Jr. (Commander), John L. Swigert Jr. Module Pilot), Fred W. Jr. (Lunar Module Pilot)

The crew aborted after an tank in the Service Module and ruptured mid-flight. The crew into the Lunar Module and navigated back to Earth.

14

Launch date: Jan. 31,

Crew: Alan B. Shepard Jr. Stuart A. Roosa (Command Pilot), Edgar D. Mitchell Module Pilot)

Landing site: Fra Mauro

Mission: Shepard and Mitchell the side of Cone Crater to see how they could move in bulky space suits. hit two golf balls.

Apollo 15

date: July 26, 1971

David R. Scott (Commander), J. Worden (Command Module James B. Irwin (Lunar Pilot)

Landing site: Rille/Apennines region

Mission: used the Lunar Roving to explore the surface of the moon. demonstrated that a hammer and fell at the same rate. The left behind a plaque the 14 American and Soviet astronauts who had since the space program’s

Apollo 16

Volkswagen Apollo

Launch date: 16, 1972

Crew: John W. (Commander), Thomas K. Mattingly II Module Pilot), Charles M. Jr. (Lunar Module Pilot)

site: Descartes region

Covered nearly 17 miles in the Roving Vehicle. The crew rock and soil samples and an ultraviolet camera and spectrograph to the first astronomical measurements the moon’s surface.

Apollo 17

date: Dec. 7, 1972

Eugene A. Cernan (Commander), E. Evans (Command Module Harrison H. Schmitt (Lunar Pilot and scientist)

Landing Taurus-Littrow region

Mission: more than 60 miles (97 in the Lunar Roving Vehicle and volcanic vents to learn the moon’s origins. The crew a plaque reading, “Here man his first exploration of the moon, 1972 A.D. May the spirit of in which he came be reflected in the of all mankind.”

Before taking his step off of the moon, Gene uttered the last words to be on its surface: “We leave as we came God willing, as we shall return, peace and hope for all mankind.”

six moon landings, American had a greater understanding of our nearest neighbor. They determined the age of the — about 4.5 billion years — and up with a theory for how it formed.

The Lunar Roving Vehicle

the early 1970s and an Apollo is hanging out on the moon with colleagues. Clad in the requisite space suit, he needs to a crater several miles so he heads for the rover. He steps up 14 (35 centimeters) into the lawn-chair seat in the center compartment of the chassis. The rover is about 10 long (3 meters), 6 feet (nearly 2 meters) and almost 4 (1 meter) high. It’s the size of a modern Volkswagen

His partner joins him in the other as the first astronaut surveys the The communications equipment (high-gain for pictures and data, low-gain for voice and TV camera), power 36-volt batteries) and navigation are located in the front compartment. In the compartment are the two seats, the display and the hand controller for driving the The storage compartment behind holds scientific and rock gear (tools, bags). them the rover’s four are each made of two aluminu (an inner and outer frame), the tires themselves are made of piano wire mesh titanium chevron treads.

The driver looks down at the console in the center of the LRV crew to get his bearings. The navigation display on top with a computer display, a sun speed display (0-12 0-20 kph), reset and a pitch-angle meter that the slope that the rover’s on. On the are the power switches that power from the two batteries, the power monitors and the switches control the electric steering and drive motors.

Before the can start driving, he has to complete the checklist, the first step of is sighting on the sun with the sun compass. he gives that reading to the at mission control, they back data to program the computer. This reading the LRV navigation computer a reference near the lunar module, the landing craft that as their home base on the moon. While in operation, the keeps track of the rover’s with respect to the lunar by using a gyroscope and by measuring (range) through the number of revolutions. A compass on the display lunar north.

Driving on the with the Apollo LRV

­The LRV didn’t come with a wheel per se. It did, however, a hand controller located behind the display console on an which coordinated the steering, motors and brakes. The controller was in the center of the crew compartment so either astronaut could although the commander usually did the It also came with a for easy operation with the bulky gloves.


Each of the LRV could operate independently by an motor and steer independently of the wheels so that the LRV could even if one steering linkage Similarly, each wheel had independent brakes. For NASA, has always been a priority. In this setup allowed a turning radius of 10 feet (3

The T-handle could pivot right, front or back and forward or backward. It also with a button that lock the controller for use in a forward as well as a ring to release the brake. The movements of the hand guided the LRV like this:

forward = accelerate forward

rearward = accelerate backward

left = turn left

right = turn right

the handle backward = apply the and disengage the throttle

Sliding the all the way back = engage the parking

Let’s return to our two astronauts outward to explore the crater. The suspension minimizes the bumps of the terrain, but they’re strapped in ­toeholds, handholds and seat anyway. Although the LRV is desi­gned go up a as steep as 25 degrees or to travel as far as 40 (67 kilometers), they won’t more than 6 miles (10 from the lunar module. If the failed, they could walk back to the module their life support ran out.

And unanticipated problems, and otherwise, did occur. For example, on the 17 mission, Commander Gene broke off a piece of the rover’s when a hammer in his space ­pocket caught it as he passed by. The blocked the moon dust up by the rover’s mesh wheels. If the hadn’t repaired the fender, the would have covered the and equipment in moon dust — a to both the men and the equipment. They a new fender from a laminated map and tape, which allowed to continue using the vehicle. ingenious.

Volkswagen Apollo
Volkswagen Apollo
Volkswagen Apollo
Volkswagen Apollo

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