AnswerParty Is there any cars in la on sale for one thousand dollars? — Volkswagen Bora Variant MkV

28 мая 2015 | Author: | Комментарии к записи AnswerParty Is there any cars in la on sale for one thousand dollars? — Volkswagen Bora Variant MkV отключены
Volkswagen Bora Variant MkV

Is there any cars in la on sale for one dollars?

1991 Volkswagen Convertable — $11001 876 9036 or you can email at

Volkswagen ( VW ; German pronunciation: ; ) is a automobile manufacturer headquartered in Lower Saxony, Germany. is the original and top-selling marque of the Group, the biggest German and the third largest automaker in the Volkswagen has three cars in the top 10 of best-selling cars of all time by the website 24/7 Wall St . the Golf, the Volkswagen Beetle, and the Passat. With these cars, Volkswagen has the most of any automobile manufacturer in the list are still being manufactured. ranks third in spending the money of any automaker on research and as of 2011. Volkswagen means car in German. Its current slogan is Car). Volkswagen was originally in 1937 by the Nazi trade the German Labour Front ( Arbeitsfront ). In the early 1930s auto industry was still composed of luxury models, and the German rarely could anything more than a As a result only one German out of 50 a car. Seeking a potential new some car makers began peoples’ car projects – Mercedes’ Adler’s AutoBahn, Steyr 55, 1,3L, among others. The was not new, as Béla Barényi is with having conceived the design in the middle 1920s. Ganz developed the Standard (going as far as advertising it as the German Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans penned Tatra T77, a popular car amongst the German was becoming smaller and more at each revision. Ferdinand a well known designer for end vehicles and race cars, had trying for years to get a manufacturer in a small car suitable for a family. He the small cars at the time just stripped down big Instead he built a car he called the from the ground up in 1931, many of the ideas floating at the time and several of his own, together a car with an air-cooled engine, torsion bar suspension, and a shape, the front hood for better aerodynamics (necessary as it had a engine). In 1933, with of the above projects still in or early stages of production, Hitler got involved, demanding the of a basic vehicle capable of two adults and three children at 100 (62 mph). He wanted his German to have the same access to a car as the The People’s Car would be available to of the Third Reich through a plan at 990 Reichsmark (US$396 in dollars)—about the price of a small (the average income around 32RM a week). heavy lobbying in favour of one of the projects, it soon became that private industry not turn out a car for only 990RM. Hitler chose to sponsor an state-owned factory using Porsche’s design (with of Hitler’s design constraints, an air-cooled engine so nothing freeze). The intention was that Germans would buy the car by means of a scheme ( – Five marks a you must put aside, if you want in own car to ride ), which around people eventually paid The savings of these 336,000 were seized by the Russians in when they captured Prototypes of the car called the KdF-Wagen Kraft durch Freude – through joy), appeared 1936 onwards (the cars had been produced in The car already had its distinctive round and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted The VW car was just one of many KdF programs included things such as and outings. The prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but to other products in Germany; the radio receiver for instance. On 28 May the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen mbH (sometimes abbreviated to Gezuvor ) was by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront . It was later Volkswagenwerk GmbH on 16 September Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Union chief designer, of Ferdinand Porsche’s hand-picked developed the car body of the prototype, was recognizably the Beetle known It was one of the first to be evolved with the aid of a tunnel, in use in Germany since the 1920s. The cars were put many rigorous tests, and a record-breaking million miles of before being deemed The building of the new factory started 26 May in the new town of KdF-Stadt, now called which had been purpose-built for the workers. This factory had produced a handful of cars by the war started in 1939. None actually delivered to any holder of the saving stamp books, one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to on 20 April 1938 (his birthday). War meant production to military vehicles, the Type 82 (Bucket car) utility (VW’s most common model), and the amphibious Schwimmwagen were used to equip the forces. As was common with of the production in Nazi Germany the war, slave labor was in the Volkswagen plant. The company admit in 1998 that it 15,000 slaves during the war German historians estimated 80% of Volkswagen’s wartime workforce was labor.] [ Many of the slaves reported to have been from the concentration camps request from plant A lawsuit was filed in 1998 by for restitution for the forced labor. would set up a voluntary restitution The company owes its post-war largely to one man, British officer Major Ivan REME. In April 1945, and its heavily bombed factory captured by the Americans, and subsequently over to the British, within occupation zone the town and fell. The factories were under the control of Oldham-born At first, the plan was to use it for military maintenance, and possibly dismantled and to Britain. Since it had been for military production, and had been in words a political animal than a commercial enterprise—technically it liable for destruction under the of the Potsdam Agreement—the equipment was in intended to be salvaged as war reparations. dismantling policy changed in 1946 to mid-1947, although industry continued to be dismantled 1951.) Hirst painted one of the cars green and demonstrated it to Army headquarters. Short of transport, in September 1945 the Army was persuaded to place a order for 20,000. The first few cars went to personnel the occupying forces, and to the German Office. Some British personnel were allowed to their VW Beetles back to the Kingdom when they demobilised, and one of the very first brought back in that way (UK number JLT 420) is still by Peter Colborne-Baber, the son of the original of the UK’s first official Importer, Colborne Garages of Surrey. In the Industrial plans for the rules for which industry was to be allowed to retain in the post-war were set out. German car was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production By 1946 the factory was producing cars a month, a remarkable considering it was still in disrepair. to roof and window damage, stopped production and new vehicles bartered for steel required for production. The car and its town changed Second World War-era to Volkswagen and Wolfsburg respectively, and was increasing. It was still unclear was to become of the factory. It was offered to from the American, Australian, and French motor industries. all rejected it. After an inspection of the Sir William Rootes, head of the Rootes Group, told the project would fail two years, and that the car is quite to the average motorcar buyer, is too and too noisy … If you think you’re to build cars in this you’re a bloody fool, man.] [ The official report To build the car commercially would be a uneconomic enterprise. In an ironic of fate, Volkswagen would a locally built version of Hillman Avenger in Argentina in the long after Rootes had bankrupt at the hands of Chrysler in Beetle outliving the Avenger by 30 years. Ford representatives equally critical. In March the British offered the Volkswagen to Ford, for free. Henry II, the son of Edsel Ford, traveled to Germany for discussions. Heinz was also present, and Ernest chairman of the board for Ford Company. Henry Ford II to Ernest Breech for his opinion, and said Mr. Ford, I don’t what we’re being here is worth a damn! passed on the offer, leaving to rebuild itself under leadership. From 1948, became a very important symbolically and economically, of West regeneration. Heinrich Nordhoff a former senior manager at who had overseen civilian and military production in the 1930s and 1940s, was to run the factory in 1948. In 1949 Hirst left association the company, as it had now been re-formed as a controlled by the West German and the government of the State of Lower Apart from the introduction of the Type 2 commercial vehicle pick-up and camper), and the VW Karmann sports car, Nordhoff the one-model policy until before his death in 1968. were first exhibited and in the United States in 1949, but only two units in America first year. On its entry to the market, the VW was briefly sold as a Wagon. Volkswagen of America was in April 1955 to standardise and service in the United States. of the Type 1 Volkswagen Beetle dramatically over the years, the reaching one million in 1955. in Canada – Canadian Motors brought in their first on 10 July 1952. (shipping 143075) The order consisted of 12 (3) model 11C, a black, and sandcolor (3) 11GS, a chestnut and two azure blue, (2) 24A-M51 in (1)21A in blue, (1) 23A in blue, (1) 22A color, and one Ambulance. Volkswagen were seen in Canada for the time at the Canadian National in August 1952 and were enthusiastically. (at least one bus from order still exists, in France undergoing restoration) The shipment of cars for Volkswagen reached Toronto in early 1952. (at least one beetle this first shipment exists, travelled across by VW Canada on their 60th in 2012) By 1955 sales on a basis that warranted the of the fine Volkswagen plant on a (130,000 m2) site on Scarboro’s Mile. To this, a 60,000-square-foot m2) building with administration, service, repairs and parts, an of 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) was built in with storage for $4,000,000 of (See 1959 Canadian of Commerce Industry held in the Libraries at the University of Western London, Ontario.) Sales in part to the famous advertising by New York advertising agency Dane Bernbach. Led by art director Krone, and copywriters Julian and Bob Levinson, Volkswagen advertisements as popular as the car, using layouts and witty copy to the younger, sophisticated consumers whom the car became associated. though it was almost universally as the Beetle (or the Bug), it was never labelled as such by the manufacturer, referred to as the Type 1. The first to the name Beetle occurred in advertising in 1968, but not until and the Golf-based New Beetle would the be adopted by Volkswagen.] [ Although the car was outdated, during the 1960s and 1970s, American exports,

innovative advertising, and a growing for reliability helped production surpass the levels of the previous holder, the Ford Model T. On 17 1972 the 15,007,034th Beetle was Volkswagen could now claim the production record for the most-produced, make of car in history. By 1973, production was over 16 million. To its passing the Ford Model record sales mark and its in the Baja 1000 Mexican from 1967 to 1971, produced its first limited-edition It was marketed as the Baja Champion SE in the States and the Marathon Superbeetle in the of the world. It featured unique Blau metallic blue steel-pressed 10-spoke 15-inch (38 cm) wheels, a commemorative metal mounted on the glovebox and a certificate of presented to the original purchaser. options for this limited-edition included the following: white running the length of the rocker-panel, a shifter knob, bumper tapered exhaust tips, walnut inserts in the dashboard the steering wheel and the glovebox as well as Bosch fog lights on the front bumper. VW expanded its line in 1961 with the of four Type 3 models Ghia, Notchback, Squareback) on the new Type 3 mechanical underpinnings, and in 1969 with the larger 4 (411 and 412) models. differed substantially from vehicles, with the notable of monocoque/unibody construction, the option of a automatic transmission, electronic injection, and a sturdier powerplant. added a Super Beetle Type 113) to its lineup in The Type 113 differed from the Beetle in its use of a MacPherson strut suspension instead of the usual bars. Also the nose of the car was 2 inches (51 mm) to allow the spare to lie flat, and the combination of these two significantly increased the usable luggage space. Despite the Beetle’s (marketed outside America as the VW 1302, later popularity with Volkswagen purists preferred the standard with its less pronounced and its original torsion bar suspension. In Volkswagen introduced the military-themed 181, or Trekker in Europe, in America, recalling the wartime 82. The military version was produced for the German Army during the War years of 1970 to 1979. The US version only sold for two 1973 and 1974, thanks at in part to Ralph Nader’s safety campaigns. In 1964, succeeded in purchasing Auto and in 1969, NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU). The company owned the historic brand, which had disappeared the Second World War. VW merged Auto Union and NSU to the modern day Audi company, and go on to develop it as its luxury vehicle However, the purchase of Auto and NSU proved to be a pivotal point in history, as both companies the technological expertise that necessary for VW to survive when for its air-cooled models went terminal decline as the 1970s

Volkswagen Eos Details

The Volkswagen Eos is a retractable hardtop coupé introduced in 2006 as the successor to the Golf Cabriolet. The Eos is Volkswagen’s production coupe since the Corrado in 1995. The name Eos is from Eos, the Greek of the dawn. The Eos incorporates into its folding roof an integrated and sliding glass sunroof — the Eos the only retractable hardtop of kind. The roof folds into the trunk in 25 seconds, reducing trunk space 10.5 to 6.6 cubic feet to 190 L) The roof was designed and is built by a subsidiary of Webasto Germany. to production, the Eos was shown as the Concept C car at the 2004 Geneva Motor — designed by a team headed by Schreyer, Head of Volkswagen in Wolfsburg. Other sources the design of the Eos specifically to Slovenian Lešnik. The production Eos, at the AutoEuropa plant in Portugal, was in September 2005 at the Frankfurt Show, with the North introduction at the Los Angeles Auto in January, 2006. Unlike the which was a convertible version of the hatchback, the Eos is a standalone model all-new body panels, it shares the platform and components the Volkswagen Golf (MK5). The matches the Golf Mk5 and Jetta. The Night edition is a special with custom wheels, black interior and a black and colour scheme package. It Candy White-coloured body, Black Pearlescent-coloured roof, LED tail lights, 18-inch wheels. Other features black mirror covers, grille and trim strips, nappa leather seats, and side trim and black wheel with light-coloured trim strips and radio in Candy White, Sill strips with White letters. Other features Climatronic climate control sports chassis lowered 15 mm in) and heated front seats. The car had MSRP of €33,140. This is available with all non-V6 A facelifted Volkswagen Eos appeared in 2010, and will go on sale as a model outside Europe. The concern has no plans to build a top version of the Eos (called Eos R ), as they did not its cabriolet to be powered by a high-revving and as the recent top-performing versions V6s which while powerful are too heavy for a sporty offshoot. there are rumors that is an in-house Eos R in the works, and it is speculated it’s likely to get a tuned 3.6 VR6 engine and 4motion all-wheel system instead of front-wheel [ All vehicles are front-wheel drive 1.4 TSI, 1.6 FSI, 2.0 FSI are only in Europe. 2.0 TDI I4 is sold in Europe and The Eos is produced in Volkswagen’s AutoEuropa in Palmela, Portugal. Although started in late 2005, deliveries were delayed due to a noise problem. The Eos was released in in the first quarter of 2006, and in America in the third quarter of Right-hand drive market began sales in October followed by New Zealand and Australia in 2007. It was released in South in the second quarter of 2007.

The Volkswagen Jetta is a small car produced by German automaker Group for the Volkswagen Passenger marque since 1979. to fill a saloon/sedan niche the firm’s Golf hatchback it has been marketed over six variously as the Atlantic . Fox . Vento . . City Jetta . Jetta . GLI . Jetta . and Sagitar . The Jetta was adapted by adding a conventional to the Golf hatchback, and some styling (usually the front and sometimes slight interior It has been offered in two- and saloon (sedan), and five-door (station wagon) versions all as five-seaters. As of 2005, over 6.6 cars have been worldwide, over one-third in the States alone. Since the version in 1980, the car has grown in and power with each generation. By mid-2011, almost 10 Jettas have been and sold all over the world. numerous sources suggest the nameplate derives from the ‘jet stream’ during a when Volkswagen named its after prominent winds and (e.g. the Volkswagen Passat the German word for trade Volkswagen Bora (after and Volkswagen Scirocco (after a 2013 report by former VW copywriter Bertel Schmitt, that — after consulting VW sources including Dr. Carl former Volkswagen of America and WP Schmidt, former sales at Volkswagen — no conclusive evidence that Volkswagen employed a theme for its then new front-drive, vehicles; nor that the names etymologically to any particular theme; nor any naming system was ever either officially or confidentially. and RoW :

1.1L 50 PS (37 kW; 49 hp)

1.3L 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp)

1.5L 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp)

85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp)

1.6L 110 PS (81 kW; 110 hp)

1.8L 112 PS (82 kW; 110 hp)

I4 diesel

1.6L 54 PS (40 kW; 53 hp)

1.6L 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp) TD

Although the had reached considerable success in the American markets, Volkswagen that the hatchback body lacked some of the appeal to who preferred the traditional three-box The styling of the 1970 AMC Gremlin was for truncating the Hornet sedan, but stylists reversed the process by grafting a new trunk onto the of the Golf to produce a larger saloon (sedan). The Jetta the best-selling European car in the United Canada, and Mexico. The car is also in Europe, including the United Germany, and Turkey. The Jetta was to the world at the 1979 Frankfurt Show. Production of the first began in August 1979 at the plant. In Mexico, the Mark 1 was as the Volkswagen Atlantic. The car was available as a saloon/sedan (replacing the aging rear-wheel drive Volkswagen 2-door sedan in the United and Canada) and four-door saloon/sedan styles, both of which a traditional three-box design. the Volkswagen Golf Mk1, its styling was penned at ItalDesign, by Giugiaro. Styling differences be found depending on the market. In of the world, the car was available with headlights, while in the USA, it was available with rectangular beam lamps due to Federal Vehicle Safety Standard 108 108). The suspension setup was to the Golf and consisted of a MacPherson setup in front and a twist-beam suspension in the rear. It shared its 2.4 (94.5 in) wheelbase with its counterpart, although overall was up by 380 millimetres (15 in). The capacity of the compartment was 377 litres (13.3 making the Jetta reasonably To distinguish the car from the Golf, were made more in all markets. This included seating and color coordinated to sill carpeting. Engine varied considerably depending on the market. Most were on 827 engines of the era. Choices in engines ranged from a 1.1 four-cylinder engine producing 37 (50 PS; 50 bhp), to a 1.8-litre I4 which 82 kilowatts (111 PS; 110 bhp) and 150 metres (111 lbf·ft) of Some cars were with carburetors, while were fuel-injected using K or KE supplied by Robert Bosch Diesel engine choices a 1.6-litre making 37 kilowatts (50 PS; 50 and a turbocharged version of the same which produced 51 kilowatts (69 PS; 68 and 130 newton metres (96 lbf·ft) of In 1984 Volkswagen offered the GLI in the US, adding many of the drivetrain and improvements of the 1983–1984 US GTI, the fuel-injected 90 hp engine, close-ratio manual transmission, sport front and rear anti-sway and ventilated front disc Externally, the Jetta GLI was distinguished by body-side moldings, a black on the driver’s-side windshield wiper, plastic trim panel the rear taillights and GLI badging. The of the car sported leather 4-spoke wheel and shift knob, additional gauges in the center sport seats similar to in the GTI, and distinctive upholstery and trim. The Jetta GLI was offered in 5 black, Atlas grey and red black interior) and white and silver (with blue [ Volkswagen briefly considered the Jetta in a plant located in Heights, Michigan in the USA. due to declining sales in North the decision was postponed and finally in 1982. The site was subsequently to Chrysler in 1983 and is still in as of 2009. This generation was produced in Bosnia under the venture Tvornica Automobila (TAS) for the Balkan area. was an early adopter of passive systems. The first generation could be equipped with an shoulder belt mounted to the The idea was to always have the buckled thereby doing with the requirement that the and passenger remember to buckle up. of a lap belt, the dashboard was designed an integrated knee bar to prevent underneath the shoulder belt. In tests conducted by the National Traffic Safety Administration, the 1 received five out of five in a 56 km/h (35 mph) frontal test for both driver and protection. The first generation was met generally positive reviews. found the car handled precisely, the lack of power steering to heavy steering when The brakes worked well for a car of the but some brake fade was The ride was taut but firm in the style of German cars, large bumps being absorbed by the suspension but smaller coming through. Reviews on noise levels, some the car fairly quiet, while thought the engine contributed to noise levels. Critics the seating comfortable, but noted the rear seat lacked head room. Most controls and displays such as the and climate controls were liked, but some secondary were not well placed or The aforementioned automatic seat in some markets that attached to the door frame it impossible to forget to buckle the but it was difficult to enter the car with a in hand. Writers liked the luggage space was generous, for a car of its size. Additionally, numerous areas also gave to the sedan. In one test, the car scored as high as the more expensive Passat/Dasher and the Audi 80/4000. The Atlantic was introduced in the Mexican in February 1981. The sole for the Atlantic in the Mexican market was the 18. The Mark 1 continued to be manufactured and in South Africa after the of the Mark 2, badged as the Fox.

Europe and RoW :

I4 petrol engines I4 40 kW (54 PS; 54 hp)

1.3L cat I4 40 kW (54 PS; 54 hp)

1.6L I4 55 kW (75 PS; 74 hp)

1.6L cat I4 51 kW (69 PS; 68 hp)

cat I4 53 kW (72 PS; 71 hp)

1.8L I4 66 kW (90 PS; 89 hp)

1.8L cat I4 62 kW (84 PS; 83 hp)

1.8L cat I4 66 kW (90 PS; 89 hp)

I4 82 kW (111 PS; 110 hp)

1.8L cat I4 79 kW (107 PS; 106 hp)

cat 4×4 I4 72 kW (98 PS; 97 hp)

1.8L 16-valve I4 102 kW PS; 137 hp)

1.8L cat 16-valve I4 95 kW (129 PS; 127 hp) I4 engines

1.6L I4 40 kW (54 PS; 54 hp)

1.6L cat I4 44 kW (60 PS; 59 hp)

1.6L I4 51 kW (69 PS; 68 hp) Turbodiesel

1.6L I4 59 kW (80 PS; 79 hp) North America: I4 gasoline ( EA827 ) 1.8L 85 hp (63 kW) (MY 1985–1987)

Volkswagen Bora Variant MkV

non-cat, Canada only95 hp (71 kW) (MY

1.8L GLI 102 hp (76 kW) (MY 1985–1987)

1.8L 100 hp (75 kW) (MY

1.8L 105 hp (78 kW) (MY 1988–1992)

1.8L 16V 123 hp (92 kW) (MY

2.0L 16V 134 hp (100 kW) (MY 1990–1992) I4 engine ( EA827 ) 1.6L 59 hp (44 kW) (MY 1985–1992)

1.6L Turbo 68 hp (51 kW) (MY 1985–1992)

The Mark 2 series is the running Jetta so far. to Europe in early 1984 and to America in 1985, the second Jetta proved to be a sales for Volkswagen. The car secured the title of European car in North America, Journal COTY 1991 and the similar Golf by two-to-one in market. Based on the all new second Golf platform, the car was larger, and could seat five instead of four as in the Mark 1. dimensions increased in all directions. length was up by 100 millimetres (3.9 the wheelbase grew 66 millimetres in), and the width went up 53 (2.1 in). The suspension was basically unchanged from the generation, although refined for example by the inclusion of a separate for mounting the front control to help noise isolation, as as improved rubber mountings for all Aerodynamics improved considerably, a drag coefficient of 0.36. a 470-litre (16.6 ft3) compartment, the trunk had grown as large as some full-sized sedans. Interior room was increased 14%, which the EPA class from sub-compact to Cars built in Germany assembled in a brand new (at the time) at Wolfsburg in Assembly Hall 54. The was heavily robotised in an effort to build quality more New innovations on the second generation an optional trip computer to as the MFA, German Multi-Funktions-Anzeige), as as silicone dampened engine and mounts to reduce noise, and harshness levels. In 1988, a advanced fully electronic injection system became This arrangement is known as the Engine Management system. the Mark 1, the second generation was as a two-door or four-door saloon/sedan. changes throughout the series’ run few: the front-quarter windows eliminated in 1988 (along a grille and door trim and larger body-colored bumpers and side skirts were from 1990. In 2007, of America held a contest to the diesel powered Volkswagen the highest distance traveled on the engine. The winning car was a 1986 Turbodiesel found in Blue Ohio which had 562,000 (904,000 km). A local verified the odometer reading. on this particular car was that it had the original muffler despite located in an area subject to salt in the winter. In a crash conducted by the National Highway Safety Administration, the Jetta three out of five stars for driver and passenger protection in a 56 (35 mph) frontal crash The Highway Loss Data (part of the Insurance Institute for Safety) found the injury and losses for the Jetta to be among the of the small 4-door sedan It was topped only by the Golf. models had the dubious distinction of an especially high rate of theft. Apparently, the mounting of the made it especially easy to quickly. To correct the problem, introduced a theft protection to all cars. When the power to the radio was removed, it automatically into safe mode. plugged back in, it would not unless a secret code was This made it essentially to thieves, although provided a to customers who misplaced their card. The dealership maintains a of codes, and can replace a lost if the radio serial number is The Jetta did not differ greatly its European twin (at least as as the Golf did), besides such as bumpers, glass, Also, North American in general have a narrower of specification available. For example, models had things like a engine, full console, panel pockets, velour and, later on, power height adjustable steering and tachometer, standard. They lacked some higher options of European variants. The was perceived as slightly upmarket the Golf. The level of features was a step above (standard restraint in 1988, standard steering in 1990, 14-inch available for most years, Canadian spec models even better equipped. the Canadian base models the same level of options as an GL, and the same with the GL and Carat. Canadian specification differences diesel engines (both aspirated and Turbo) available for all (in the US, there was no diesel for 1988, and the n/a for 1989 and 1990), a 2-door for 1992 (it was dropped in the US), the Carat model (which had velour sport seats, a GLi and optional automatic), and color and differences. The car received generally reviews, with critics the car’s excellent handling, as as a roomier interior compared to the generation. Stiff shifting transmissions were a downside, and worked reasonably well some brake fade was in the lower trim lines with solid discs in and drums in back. A number of noted that the ride was and busy, even though it did good control typical of cars. Despite additional insulation, road noise was especially on coarse pavement. In top trim (sometimes called the GLI or some reviewers noted the car was a expensive alternative to a BMW or Audi. The trim added larger a stiffer suspension, and closer on the manual transmission. Later of the Mark 2 GLI had a 16 valve dual cam originally a 1.8-litre engine was used in the mid-1987 GLI and beginning in with the newer Mark 2 style an upgrade to a 2.0-litre 16 (in North America). The IRVW 3 Research Volkswagen) was a 1983-1984 study based on the not yet released II. In appearance it looked like more than a slightly Jetta, but it was packed with refined technology for its time. It was a feasibility study for newly technology such as anti-lock and electric power steering. A of functions were computer such as the overdrive gear for its manual gearbox. The engine was the 1.8 litre inline-four from the GTi, but here equipped a Roots-type supercharger for a max power of PS (129–132 kW). Top speed was 212 (132 mph). The IRVW 3 had a pneumatic suspension which lowered the car when the speed 120 km/h (75 mph). Besides the production base in Germany, generation was produced in a number of countries, including China, Mexico, South Africa, and the former Yugoslavia. The Mark 2 went on to become the first model produced in China by Group China’s second venture partner FAW-Volkswagen. began on 5 December 1991. sold as complete knock (CKD) kits, local has gradually taken over in the of Semi-Knocked Down kits in and full local production in The car has had three revisions since its in China, the first facelift front-end styling from the generation Volkswagen Passat in Production started in August and its name was changed to the Jetta The second facelift was revealed in 2004 (taking influences Volkswagen’s most expensive the Phaeton). On 29 July 2007, it was that First Automotive expanded its production of the Mark 2 by building a new assembly plant in Sichuan Province in Southwest The expansion was driven by the high for the car, a desire to expand in the part of the country, as well as the term goal of FAW to develop new from the car’s platform of Volkswagen. The third facelift was in March 2010, which some inspirations from of Volkswagen models of the newest A diesel version of the Jetta is on sale, but a large proportion are in as taxis in many cities in rather than as private In March 2013, the Jetta was replaced by the Jetta Night Type NF). Petrol

1.6L 55 kW (75 PS) I4 (ABU/AEA/AEE)

1.6L 74 kW PS) I4 (AEK/AFT)

1.8L 55 kW (75 PS) I4 (AAM)

66 kW (90 PS) I4 (ABS/ADZ/ADD)

2.0L 85 kW (116 PS) I4

2.8L 128 kW (174 PS) VR6 12v (AAA)


1.9L 47 kW (64 PS) I4 (1Y)

47 kW (64 PS) I4 SDI (AEY)

For the third generation, the name was discontinued, and it was officially the Volkswagen Vento in European following the precedent of naming for winds, debuted in 1992. The 3 debuted in North America in after production delays and problems at the Volkswagen plant in Mexico. The name Vento wind in both Portuguese and It went on sale in most of in the first quarter of the year, it did not arrive on the British market September 1992. Because of the of the second generation in North Volkswagen decided to keep the nameplate. However, in Europe the car was its new name to appeal to a younger Styling was penned by a design led by Herbert Schafer, and again the car more aerodynamic than the generation. Although visually to the Mark 2, there were refinements underneath. The two-door was dropped, aerodynamics were with the car now having a drag of 0.32. This included a new which now met worldwide crash Suspensions were an evolutionary than revolutionary refinement of the on previous editions, and mainly of a wider track, and even backwards compatibility with models. In addition, the car became environmentally friendly with the use of plastics, CFC-free air conditioning and paint that did not contain metals. This generation of the car is credited for keeping Volkswagen pulling out of the North American At the time of its introduction in 1993, of America’s sales hit a low not seen the 1950s. The division sold 43,902 cars in that Sales began slowly due to the issues at the Puebla plant. sales rebounded dramatically in the years, mostly based on the of the Jetta, which continued to be the Volkswagen in the USA. When with dual airbags, the 3 received three out of five in a 56 km/h (35 mph) frontal test carried out by the National Traffic Safety Administration. In a 64 (40 mph) frontal offset test conducted by the Insurance for Highway Safety, the car received a of Marginal. Newly available on the generation was Volkswagen Group’s 1.9 Turbocharged Direct Injection 67 kilowatts (91 PS; 90 bhp) diesel Fuel economy was a strong with ratings of 5.7 L/100 km (50 mpg ; 41 mpg -US ) urban cycle and 4.8 L/100 km (59 mpg ; 49 mpg -US ) extra urban. In top trim the 2.8-litre VR6 DOHC six-cylinder was available. In one car magazine’s test, the 128 (174 PS; 172 bhp) power was able to accelerate the car from 0 to 97 (60 mph) in 6.9 seconds. Reviews generally positive, with praising the crisp handling and ride, as well as a greater of refinement compared with the generation. However, some noted that the more suspension tuning found in trims made the car bouncy, on the expressway. The manual transmission crisply; however, the automatic reduced acceleration noticeably. critics complained that the had some quirks, including a windshield wiper control, the off position was unfittingly placed the intermittent and continuous modes. If power window controls had the arrangement of the front buttons on the door, while the rear were located on the center As with previous generations, the compartment provided generous In earlier build cars, the compartment was deleted if the car was equipped dual airbags, and in the later (when airbags became equipment), the glove compartment was and could barely hold the manual and a folding paper There were also complaints about the lack of cup in the earlier cars, as well as the of a safety interlock which require the driver to press the pedal prior to starting the The 1994 through 1996 of the Jetta had some electrical causing the car not to start and shorting to in some of the electrical devices due to a non plastic V underneath the windshield, was added in later models to rain water flowing to the box. The catastrophe of this can be avoided by removing leaves and that have accumulated the windshield and by installing adhesive sealant linings underneath the cover directly onto the [ Another major complaint was the North American TDI model was not to tow a trailer, which, according to the manual, is for technical reasons. to the American market, The European TDI which has an identical power and chassis, was rated to tow a trailer to the owner’s manual. Many American TDI owners speculated Volkswagen decided not to risk issues on the American market, and owners disregarded the owner’s and installed hitches on their Owners argue that the engine delivers superior performance compared to a gasoline An unrelated Volkswagen Vento was launched in India in 2010. A version of the Polo Mk5, it has a of about 4.4m and has several options which are based on and diesel. Petrol engines:

Volkswagen Bora Variant MkV


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