Diesel engine New World Encyclopedia — Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI

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Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI


Rudolf Diesel’s patent on his engine design.

history timeline

1862: Otto develops his coal gas similar to a modern gasoline

1891: Herbert Akroyd of Bletchley perfects his oil engine, and rights to Hornsby of England to engines. They build the cold start, compression engines.

1892: Hornsby No. 101 is built and installed in a waterworks. It is now in the MAN museum in Northern England.

Rudolf Diesel develops his heat engine type which burnt powdered dust. He is employed by refrigeration Carl von Linde, then iron manufacturer MAN AG, and later by the engine company of Switzerland. He ideas from them and a legacy with all firms.

John Froelich builds his oil engine powered farm

1894: Witte, Reid, and start building oil engines a variety of ignition systems.

Hornsby builds diesel and railway engines.

1897: produces and drives the first US gas automobile; he later builds plants.

1897: Mirrlees, Yaryan build the first diesel engine under from Rudolf Diesel. is now displayed in the Science Museum at Kensington, London.

1898: installs a Rudolf Diesel engine in his brewery in St. Louis. It is the in the United States. Rudolf perfects his compression start patents, and licenses it. This pictured above, is in a German

1899: Diesel licenses his to builders Burmeister Wain, and Sulzer, who become famous

1902: F. Rundlof invents the crankcase, scavenged hot bulb

1902: A company named City started manufacturing generators.

1903: Ship transits the ice-filled Northwest aided with a Dan kerosene

1904: French build the diesel submarine, the Z.

1908: starts building two stroke engines.

1912: First ship MS Selandia is built. SS polar explorer Amundsen’s is converted to a AB Atlas diesel.

Fairbanks Morse starts its Y model semi-diesel engine. US submarines use NELSECO units.

German U-Boats are powered by MAN War service proves engine’s

1920s: Fishing fleets to oil engines. Atlas-Imperial of Oakland, and Lister diesels appear.

First diesel trucks

1928: Canadian National employ a diesel shunter in yards.

1930s: Clessie starts with Dutch engines, and then builds his own trucks and a Duesenberg luxury car at the speedway.

1930s: Caterpillar building diesels for their

1933: Citroën introduced the a passenger car with the world’s commercially available diesel developed with Harry

1934: General Motors a GM diesel research facility. It diesel railroad engines—The Zephyr—and goes on to found the Motors Electro-Motive Division, becomes important building for landing craft and tanks in the World War. GM then this knowledge to market with its famous Green for buses and railroad engines.

Mercedes-Benz builds the 260D car. A.T.S.F inaugurates the train Super Chief.

Airship Hindenburg is powered by engines.

How diesel engines

Compressing any gas raises its temperature, the by which fuel is ignited in engines. Air is drawn into the and is compressed by the pistons at compression as high as 25:1, much than used for spark-ignite At near the end of the compression stroke, fuel is injected into the chamber through an injector (or The fuel ignites from with the air that, due to compression, has heated to a temperature of about Celsius (°C ) (1300–1650 Farenheit (°F )). The combustion causes increased and expansion in the cylinder which pressure and moves the piston A connecting rod transmits this to a crankshaft to convert linear to rotary motion for use as power in a of applications. Intake-air to the engine is controlled by mechanical valves in the head. For increased power most modern diesel are equipped with a turbocharger, and in derivatives, a supercharger to increase air volume. Use of an aftercooler/intercooler to cool air that has been compressed, and heated, by the turbocharger increases the of the air and typically leads to power and improvements.

In cold weather, engines can be difficult to start the cold metal of the cylinder and head draw out the heat in the cylinder during the compression thus preventing ignition. diesel engines use small heaters called glow inside the cylinder help fuel when starting. even use resistive grid in the intake manifold to warm the air until the engine reaches temperature. Engine block (electric resistive heaters in the block) connected to the utility are often used when an is turned off for extended periods than an hour) in cold to reduce startup time and wear. Diesel fuel is prone to ‘waxing’ in cold a term for the solidification of diesel oil a crystalline state. The crystals up in the fuel (especially in fuel eventually starving the engine of Low-output electric heaters in tanks and around fuel are used to solve this Also, most engines a ‘spill return’ system, by any excess fuel from the pump and injectors is returned to the tank. Once the engine has returning warm fuel waxing in the tank. Fuel has improved recently so that special additives waxing no occurs in all but the coldest climates.

A component of all diesel engines is a or electronic governor, which the speed of the engine by controlling the of fuel delivery. Unlike cycle engines, incoming air is not and a diesel engine without a can easily overspeed. Mechanically fuel injection systems are by the engine’s gear train. systems use a combination of springs and to control fuel delivery to both load and speed. electronically controlled, diesel control fuel delivery and the maximum revolutions per minute by use of an electronic control module or electronic control unit The ECM/ECU receives an engine signal from a sensor and the amount of fuel and start of timing through electric or actuators.

Controlling the timing of the of injection of fuel into the is a key to minimizing emissions, and maximizing economy (efficiency), of the engine. The is usually measured in units of angle of the piston before Top Center (TDC). For example, if the initiates fuel injection the piston is 10 degrees before the start of injection, or timing, is to be 10 deg BTDC. Optimal timing depend on the engine design as as its speed and load.

Advancing the of injection (injecting before the reaches TDC) results in in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and efficiency, but also results in emissions of oxides of nitrogen NOx higher combustion temperatures. At the extreme, delayed start of causes incomplete combustion and visible black smoke of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbon (HC).

Fuel in diesel engines

Early injection systems

The modern engine is a combination of two inventors’ In all major aspects, it holds to Diesel’s original design, of the fuel being ignited by at an extremely high pressure the cylinder. However, nearly all diesel engines use the so-called injection system invented by Akroyd Stuart, for his hot bulb (a compression-ignition engine that the diesel engine and operates differently). Solid injection is the fuel is raised to extreme by mechanical pumps and delivered to the chamber by pressure-activated injectors in an solid-state jet. Diesel’s engine injected fuel the assistance of compressed air, atomized the fuel and forced it the engine through a nozzle. is called an air-blast injection. The of the gas compressor needed to power a system made early engines very heavy and for their power outputs, and the to drive a compressor lowered output even more. marine diesels often had auxiliary engines whose purpose was to drive the compressors to air to the main engine’s injector Such a system was too bulky and to be used for road-going automotive

Solid injection systems are simpler, and allow for much RPMs, and so are universally used for diesel engines. Air-blast provide very efficient under low-speed, high-load especially when running on fuels, so some large marine engines use this method. Air-blast injection raises the fuel temperature the injection process, so is sometimes as hot-fuel injection. In contrast, injection is sometimes called injection.

Because the vast of diesel engines in service use solid injection, the information relates to that system.

and electronic injection

Older make use of a mechanical fuel and valve assembly which is by the engine crankshaft, usually the timing belt or chain. engines use simple injectors are basically very precise valves which will and close at a specific fuel The pump assembly consists of a which pressurizes the fuel and a valve which rotates at crankshaft speed. The valve has a aperture to the pressurized fuel on one and one aperture for each injector on the As the engine turns, the valve will line up and deliver a of pressurized fuel to the injector at the about to enter its power The injector valve is forced by the fuel pressure, and the diesel is until the valve rotates out of and the fuel pressure to that is cut off. Engine speed is by a third disc, which only a few degrees and is controlled by the lever. This disc the width of the aperture through the fuel passes, and therefore how the injectors are held open the fuel supply is cut, controls the amount of fuel

The more modern method a separate fuel pump supplies fuel constantly at pressure to each injector. injector then has a solenoid is operated by an electronic control which enables more control of injector opening that depend on other conditions, such as engine and loading, resulting in better performance and fuel economy. design is also mechanically than the combined pump and design, making it generally reliable, and less noisy, its mechanical counterpart.

Both and electronic injection systems can be in either direct or indirect configurations.

Indirect injection

An injection diesel engine fuel into a chamber off the chamber, called a prechamber, combustion begins and then into the main combustion assisted by turbulence created in the This system allows quieter running, and because is assisted by turbulence, injector can be lower, which in the days of injection systems allowed running suitable for road (typically up to speed of around rpm). During the development of the diesel engine in the 1930s, engine manufacturers developed own type of pre-combustion chamber. such as Mercedes-Benz, had complex designs. Others, such as the pre-combustion chamber, used a system to adjust the shape of the for starting and running conditions. the most commonly-used design out to be the ‘Comet’ series of swirl developed by Harry Ricardo, a two-piece spherical chamber a narrow ‘throat’ to induce Most European manufacturers of diesel engines used chambers or developed their own (Mercedes stayed with own design for many years), and trend continues with indirect-injection engines.


Modern diesel engines use of one of the following direct injection

Distributor pump direct

The first incarnations of direct diesels used a rotary much like indirect diesels; however the injectors mounted in the top of the combustion chamber than in a separate pre-combustion Examples are vehicles such as the Transit and the Austin Rover and Montego with their Prima engine. The problem these vehicles was the harsh that they made and (smoke) emissions. This is the that in the main this of engine was limited to commercial notable exceptions being the Montego and Fiat Croma cars. Fuel consumption was 15 to 20 percent lower than injection diesels, which for buyers was enough to compensate for the noise.

Common rail injection

In older diesel a distributor-type injection pump, by the engine, supplies bursts of to injectors which are simply through which the diesel is into the engine’s combustion

In common rail systems, the injection pump is eliminated. an extremely high pressure stores a reservoir of fuel at pressure—up to 1,800 bar (180 26,000 psi) — in a rail, basically a tube in turn branches off to computer-controlled valves, each of which a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger by a solenoid, or even by piezoelectric (now employed by Mercedes for in their high power 3.0L V6 common rail

Most European automakers common rail diesels in model lineups, even for vehicles. Some Japanese such as Toyota, Nissan and Honda, have also common rail diesel

Unit direct injection

direct injection also fuel directly into the of the engine. However, in this the injector and the pump are combined one unit positioned over cylinder. Each cylinder has its own pump, feeding its own injector, prevents pressure fluctuations and more consistent injection to be This type of injection also developed by Bosch, is by Volkswagen AG in cars (where it is a Pumpe-Düse System, literally a system) and by Mercedes Benz and most major diesel manufacturers in large commercial (CAT, Cummins, Detroit With recent advancements, the pressure has been raised to bar (205 MPa), allowing parameters similar to common systems.

Hypodermic injection hazard

Because many engine fuel injection operate at extremely high there is a risk of injury by injection of fuel, if the fuel is removed from its seat and in open air.

Types of engines

Early diesel

Rudolph Diesel intended his to replace the steam engine as the power source for industry. As diesel engines in the late and early 20th-centuries used the basic layout and form as steam engines, with cylinders, external valve cross-head bearings and an open connected to a large flywheel. engines would be built vertical cylinders, whilst medium- and large-sized industrial were built with cylinders, just as steam had been. Engines could be with more than one in both cases. The largest diesels resembled the triple-expansion engine steam engine, tens of feet high vertical cylinders arranged These early engines ran at slow speeds- partly due to the of their air-blast injector and partly so they would be with the majority of industrial designed for steam engines- ranges of between 100 and 300 RPM were Engines were usually by allowing compressed air into the to turn the engine, although engines could be started by

In the early decades of the twentieth when large diesel were first being to ships, the engines took a similar to the compound steam common at the time, with the being connected to the connecting rod via a bearing. Following steam practice, double-acting 4-stroke engines were constructed to power output, with taking place on both of the piston, with two sets of gear and fuel injection. system also meant the engine’s direction of rotation be reversed by altering the injector This meant the engine be coupled directly to the propeller the need for a gearbox. Whilst large amounts of power and very efficient, the double-acting engine’s main problem was a good seal where the rod passed through the bottom of the combustion chamber to the crosshead By the 1930s, it was found easier and reliable to fit turbochargers to the engines, crosshead bearings are still to reduce the stress on the crankshaft and the wear on the cylinders, in large cathedral engines.

Modern engines

There are two classes of and gasoline engines, two-stroke and Most diesels generally use the cycle, with some diesels operating on the two-stroke mainly the huge engines in Most modern locomotives use a diesel mated to a generator, produces current to drive motors, eliminating the need for a To achieve operational pressure in the two-stroke diesels must forced aspiration from a turbocharger or supercharger. Diesel are ideal for such applications of their high power twice as many power per crankshaft revolution compared to a they are capable of producing more power per displacement.

banks of cylinders are used in of two, although any number of can be used as long as the load on the is counterbalanced to prevent excessive The inline-6 is the most prolific in to heavy-duty engines, though the V8 and are also common. Small-capacity (generally considered to be those 5 liters in capacity are generally 4- or types, with the 4-cylinder the most common type in automotive uses. 5-cylinder engines have also produced, being a compromise the smooth running of the 6-cylinder and the dimensions of the 4-cylinder. Diesel for smaller plant machinery, tractors, generators and pumps may be 4-, 3-, types, with the single diesel engine remaining for stationary work.

The desire to the diesel engine’s power-to-weight produced several novel arrangements to extract more from a given capacity. The Deltic engine, with cylinders arranged in a triangular each containing two opposed-action the whole engine having crankshafts, is one of the better known. The van company of the United Kingdom a similar design for road The Commer engine had three in-line cylinders, each two opposed action pistons and the had two crankshafts. Whilst both designs succeeded in producing power for a given capacity, were complex and expensive to and operate, and when turbocharger improved in the 1960s this was to be a much more reliable and way of extracting more power.

As a prior to 1949, Sulzer experimenting with two-stroke with boost pressures as as six atmospheres, in which all of the output was taken from an exhaust The two-stroke pistons directly air compressor pistons to make a displacement gas generator. Opposed were connected by linkages of crankshafts. Several of these could be connected together to power gas to one large output The overall thermal efficiency was twice that of a simple gas (Source Modern High-Speed Oil Volume II by C. W. Chapman published by The Publishing Co. Ltd. reprinted in 1949)

Carbureted compression model engines

Simple ignition engines are made for propulsion. This is quite to the typical glow-plug engine runs on a mixture of methanol alcohol) and lubricant (typically oil) (and occasionally to improve performance) with a hot filament to provide ignition. than containing a glow the head has an adjustable contra above the piston, forming the surface of the combustion chamber. contra piston is restrained by an screw controlled by an external (or sometimes by a removable hex key). The used contains ether. is highly volatile and has an extremely low point, combined with and a lubricant plus a very proportion (typically 2 percent) of improver such as Amyl or preferably Isopropyl nitrate The engine is started by reducing the and setting the spray bar mixture with the adjustable needle gradually increasing the compression cranking the engine. The compression is until the engine starts The mixture can then be leaned out and the increased. Compared to glow engines, model diesel exhibit much higher economy, thus increasing for the amount of fuel carried. also exhibit higher enabling the turning of a larger or pitched propeller at slower Since the combustion occurs before the exhaust port is these engines are also quieter (when unmuffled) glow-plug engines of similar Compared to glow plug model diesels are more to throttle over a wide of powers, making them suitable for radio control than either two- or glow-plug engines although difference is claimed to be less with the use of modern schneurle-ported

Advantages and disadvantages versus engines

Power and fuel

Diesel engines are more than gasoline (petrol) of the same power, resulting in fuel consumption. A common is 40 percent more miles per for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the model _koda Octavia, Volkswagen Group engines, has a Euro rating of 38 miles per US (6.2 liters per 100 km (L/100 for the 102 base horse power (76 kilowatts (kW)) petrol and 54 mpg (4.4 L/100 km) for the 105 bhp (75 kW) diesel However, such a comparison take into account diesel fuel is denser and about 15 percent more Adjusting the numbers for the Octavia, one the overall energy efficiency is about 20 percent greater for the version, despite the weight of the diesel engine. When engines of relatively low power for the weight (such as the 75 horse (hp) engines for the Volkswagen the diesel’s overall energy advantage is reduced further but between 10 and 15 percent.

While compression ratio is helpful in efficiency, diesel engines are more economical than (petrol) engines when at low and at engine idle. Unlike the engine, diesels lack a valve (choke) in the inlet which closes at idle. creates parasitic drag on the air, reducing the efficiency of engines at idle. Due to their heat losses, diesel have a lower risk of overheating if left idling for a periods of time. For example, in applications, such as marine, and railways, diesels are left unattended for many hours or days. These advantages are attractive in locomotives.

Naturally aspirated diesel are heavier than gasoline of the same power for two reasons. The is that it takes a larger diesel engine to produce the power as a gasoline engine. is essentially because the diesel operate at lower engine Diesel fuel is injected before ignition, leaving the little time to find all the in the cylinder. In the gasoline engine, air and are mixed for the entire compression ensuring complete mixing at higher engine speeds. The reason for the greater weight of a engine is it must be stronger to the higher combustion pressures for ignition, and the shock loading the detonation of the ignition mixture. As a the reciprocating mass (the and connecting rod), and the resultant to accelerate and to decelerate these are substantially higher the heavier, the and the stronger the part, and the laws of returns of component strength, of component and inertia—all come play to create a balance of of optimal mean power weight and durability.

Yet, it is same build quality has allowed some enthusiasts to significant power increases turbocharged engines through simple and inexpensive modifications. A engine of similar size put out a comparable power increase extensive alterations because the components would not be able to the higher stresses placed them. Since a diesel is already built to withstand levels of stress, it makes an candidate for performance tuning little expense. However, it be said that any modification raises the amount of fuel and air put a diesel engine will its operating temperature which reduce its life and increase its interval requirements. These are with newer, lighter, performance diesel engines aren’t overbuilt to the degree of engines and are being pushed to greater power in smaller

The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the greatly assists in increasing economy and power output, the fuel-air intake speed mentioned above for a given displacement. Boost pressures can be on diesels than gasoline and the higher compression ratio a diesel engine to be more than a comparable spark engine. Although the calorific of the fuel is slightly lower at MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) to at 45.8 MJ/kg, diesel is much denser and fuel is by volume, so diesel contains energy per liter or gallon. The fuel economy of the diesel the gasoline engine means the diesel produces less dioxide (CO2) per unit Recently, advances in production and in the political climate have the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an to petroleum-derived diesel fuel a much lower net-sum of CO2, due to the absorption of CO2 by plants to produce the fuel.


engines produce very carbon monoxide as they the fuel in excess air even at load, at which point the of fuel injected per cycle is about 50 percent lean of However, they can produce soot (or more specifically particulate matter) from exhaust, which consists of carbon compounds. This is caused by worn injectors, do not atomize the fuel sufficiently, or a engine management system allows more fuel to be than can be burned completely in the time.

The full load of a diesel engine in normal is defined by the black smoke beyond which point the cannot be completely combusted; as the smoke limit is still lean of stoichiometric it is possible to more power by exceeding it, but the inefficient combustion means the extra power comes at the of reduced combustion efficiency, fuel consumption and dense of smoke, so this is only in specialized applications (such as pulling) where these are of little concern.

Likewise, starting from cold, the combustion efficiency is reduced the cold engine block heat out of the cylinder in the compression The result is that fuel is not fully, resulting in blue/white and lower power outputs the engine has warmed through. is especially the case with injection engines which are thermally efficient. With injection, the timing and length of the sequence can be altered to compensate for Older engines with injection can have manual to alter the timing, or multi-phase glow plugs, that on for a period after start-up to clean combustion—the plugs are switched to a lower power to them burning out.

of the size normally called (particles of 10 micrometers or smaller) been implicated in health especially in cities. Some diesel engines feature particulate filters, which the black soot and when are automatically regenerated by burning the Other problems associated the exhaust gases (nitrogen sulfur oxides) can be mitigated further investment and equipment; diesel cars now have converters in the exhaust.

Power and

For commercial uses requiring load carrying and other tasks, diesel engines to have more desirable characteristics. Diesel engines to have their torque quite low in their speed (usually between 1600–2000 rpm for a unit, lower for a larger used in a truck ). This smoother control over loads when starting rest, and crucially allows the engine to be given higher at low speeds than a petrol/gasoline which makes them more economical for these This characteristic is not so desirable in cars, so most modern used in such vehicles use control, variable geometry and shorter piston strokes to a wider spread of torque the engine’s speed range, peaking at around 2500–3000


The lack of an electrical system greatly improves the The high durability of a diesel is also due to its overbuilt nature above) as well as the diesel’s cycle, which creates changes in pressure when to a spark-ignition engine, a benefit is magnified by the lower rotating in diesels. Diesel fuel is a lubricant than gasoline so is harmful to the oil film on piston and cylinder bores; it is routine for engines to cover 250,000 (400 000 km) or more without a

Quality and variety of fuels

In engines, a mechanical injector vaporizes the fuel (instead of a jet in a carburetor as in a petrol engine). forced vaporization means less volatile fuels can be More crucially, because air is inducted into the cylinder in a engine, the compression ratio can be higher as there is no risk of provided the injection process is timed. This means cylinder temperatures are much in a diesel engine than a engine allowing less fuels to be used.

Diesel is a form of light fuel very similar to kerosene, but engines, especially older or designs that lack electronic injection systems, can run on a variety of other fuels. One of the common alternatives is vegetable oil a very wide variety of Some engines can be run on vegetable oil modification, and most others fairly basic alterations. is a pure diesel fuel from vegetable oil and can be used in all diesel engines. The only on the fuels used in diesel are the ability of the fuel to flow the fuel lines and the ability of the to lubricate the injector pump and adequately.

Dieseling in spark-ignition engines

A (spark ignition) engine can act as a compression ignition engine abnormal circumstances, a phenomenon described as pinging or pinking normal running) or dieseling the engine continues to run after the ignition system is shut This is usually caused by hot deposits within the combustion that act as would a glow within a diesel or model engine. Excessive heat can be caused by improper ignition and/or fuel/air ratio in turn overheats the exposed of the spark plug within the chamber. Finally, high-compression that require high-octane may knock when a lower-octane is used.

Fuel and fluid

Diesel engines can operate on a of different fuels, depending on though the eponymous diesel derived from crude oil is common. Good-quality diesel can be synthesized from vegetable oil and Biodiesel is growing in popularity it can frequently be used in unmodified though production remains Recently, Biodiesel from which can produce a very coco methyl esther has characteristics which enhances and combustion giving a regular engine without any modification power, less particulate or black smoke and smoother performance. The Philippines pioneers in the on Coconut-based CME with the help of and American scientists. Petroleum-derived is often called petrodiesel if is need to distinguish the source of the

The engines can work with the spectrum of crude oil distillates, compressed natural gas, gasoline, to the fuel oils diesel oil to residual fuels. The of fuel used is a combination of requirements, and fuel costs.

fuels are the dregs of the distillation and are a thicker, heavier oil, or oil higher viscosity. which are so that they are not readily unless heated. Residual oils are cheaper than refined diesel oil, they are dirtier. Their considerations are for use in ships and very generation sets, due to the cost of the volume of fuel consumed, amounting to many metric per hour. The poorly refined straight vegetable oil (SVO) and vegetable oil (WVO) can fall this category. Moving that, use of low-grade fuels can to serious maintenance problems. diesel engines that ships like supertankers are so that the engine can safely use fuels.

Normal diesel is more difficult to ignite gasoline because of its higher point, but once burning, a fire can be fierce.


The worldwide usage of the diesel is very much dependent on conditions and the specific application. which require the diesel’s and high torque output as tractors. trucks. heavy most buses. and so forth) are practically world-wide (obviously applications also benefit the diesel’s improved fuel Local conditions such as prices play a big part in the of the diesel engine—for example, in most tractors were by the end of the 1950s, whilst in the United diesel did not dominate the market the 1970s. Similarly, around of all the cars sold in Europe fuel prices are high) are whilst practically no North private cars have engines, because of much fuel costs and a poor image.

Besides their use in ships and boats, there is a naval advantage in the relative of diesel fuel, additional to range over a gasoline The German pocket battleships the largest diesel warships, but the torpedo-boats known as E-boats of the Second World War were diesel craft. Conventional have used them before the First World It was an advantage of American diesel-electric that they operated a cycle as opposed to the four-stroke that other navies

Mercedes-Benz, cooperating with Bosch GmbH, has had a successful run of passenger cars since sold in many parts of the with other manufacturers in the 1970s and 1980s. Other car followed, Borgward in 1952, in 1953 and Peugeot in 1958.

In the States. diesel is not as popular in cars as in Europe. Such have been traditionally as heavier, noisier, having characteristics which make slower to accelerate, sootier, and of being more expensive equivalent gasoline vehicles. the late 1970s to about the General Motors’ Oldsmobile, and Chevrolet divisions produced a and unreliable diesel version of gasoline-powered V8 engines which is one good reason for this Dodge with its ever-famous inline-six diesels optioned in trucks (since about the 1980s) really revitalized the for diesel power in light among American consumers, but a superior and widely accepted regular-production diesel passenger car materialized. Trying to convert a engine for diesel use proved on the part of GM. Ford Motor tried diesel engines in passenger cars in the 1980s, but to not avail. In addition, before the of 15 parts per million ultra-low diesel, which started at 15, 2006 in the United States 1, 2006 in Canada), diesel used in North America had higher sulfur content the fuel used in Europe, limiting diesel use to industrial which had further contributed to the image. Ultra-low sulfur is not mandatory until 2010 in the States. This image not reflect recent designs, where the very high torque of modern diesels is have characteristics similar to the big V8 engines popular in the United Light and heavy trucks, in the States have been for years. After the introduction of sulfur diesel, Mercedes-Benz has passenger vehicles under the banner. In addition, other such as Ford, General Honda planned to sell vehicle in the United States in designed to meet the tougher requirements in 2010.

In Canada, Fortwo was first introduced in with a diesel engine, up 2008. [1]

In Japan, newly Diesel vehicles were than 1 percent in 2005. [2] and Mercedes-Benz have made to offer Diesel vehicles in the with Mercedes-Benz having started selling the Mercedes-Benz CDI in autumn 2006.

European tend to favor diesel in taxation policy because of superior fuel efficiency.

Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI

In where tax rates in many make diesel fuel cheaper than gasoline, vehicles are very popular half the new cars sold are by diesel engines) and newer have significantly narrowed between petrol and diesel in the areas mentioned. Often, comparably designated models, the outperform their naturally petrol-powered sister cars. One tells of Formula One driver Button, who was arrested while a diesel-powered BMW 330cd Coupé at 230 per hour (km/h) (about 140 per hour (mph)) in France. he was too young to have a gasoline-engined car to him. Button dryly in subsequent interviews that he had done BMW a public relations as nobody had believed a diesel be driven that fast. BMW had already won the 24 Hours Nürburgring in 1998 with a 3-series The BMW diesel lab in Steyr, Austria is led by Anisits and develops innovative engines.

Mercedes-Benz, offering passenger cars since has put the emphasis on high performance cars in its newer ranges, as Volkswagen with its brands. sells more cars diesel engines than engines, as the French brands Peugeot ) pioneered smoke-less HDI with filters. Even the marque Alfa Romeo, for design and successful history in focuses on diesels that are raced.

A few motorcycles have been using diesel engines, but the and cost disadvantages generally the efficiency gains in this

Within the Diesel Engine engines are often categorized by speed into three groups:

High-speed High-speed 1,200 rpm and greater) engines are to power trucks (lorries), tractors. cars. yachts, pumps and small electrical Medium-speed Large electrical are often driven by medium engines, (approximately 300 to 1,200 which are optimized to run at a set (synchronous) depending on the generation frequency (50 or 60 Hz) and a rapid response to load Medium-speed engines are also for ship propulsion and mechanical applications such as large or pumps. The largest medium engines produced today have outputs up to approximately kW (30,000 bhp). Medium engines produced today are four-stroke machines, however are some two-stroke units in production. Low-speed (aka The largest diesel engines are used to power ships, there are a very few land-based generation units as well. extremely large two-stroke have power outputs up to operate in the range from 60 to 120 rpm, and are up to 15 m tall, and can weigh 2,000 tons. They run on cheap low-grade heavy also known as Bunker which requires heating in the for tanking and before injection due to the high viscosity. Companies as MAN BW Diesel, (formerly Burmeister and Wärtsilä (which acquired Diesel) design such low speed engines. They are narrow and tall due to the addition of a bearing. Today (2007), the Wärtsilä RT-flex 96C turbocharged diesel engine built by licensee Doosan in Korea is the powerful diesel engine put service, with a cylinder of 960 mm delivering 80.08 MW (108,920 It was put into service in September aboard the world’s largest ship Emma Maersk belongs to the A.P. Moller-Maersk

Unusual applications


The Graf Zeppelin II and Hindenburg propelled by reversible diesel The direction of operation was changed by gears on the camshaft. From power forward, the engines be brought to a stop, changed and brought to full power in in less than 60 seconds.

engines were first in aircraft in the 1930s. A number of built engines, the best probably being the Packard radial, and the Junkers Jumo which was moderately successful, but unsuitable for combat use in WWII. another interesting proposal was the Napier Nomad. In general, the lower power-to-weight ratio of particularly compared to kerosene-powered engines, has precluded their use in application.

The very high of avgas in Europe, and the advances in diesel technology have renewed interest in the concept. certified diesel-powered light are already available, and a number of companies are also developing new and aircraft designs for the purpose. of these run on the readily-available jet fuel, or can run on jet fuel or conventional automotive To gain the high power:weight needed for an aero engine, new ‘aero-diesels’ are usually two-strokes and like the British ‘Dair’ use opposed-action pistons to gain power.

Automobile racing

the weight and lower output of a engine tend to keep away from automotive applications, there are many being raced in classes call for them, mainly in racing and tractor pulling, as in types of racing where drawbacks are less severe, as land speed record or endurance racing. Even dragsters exist, despite the drawbacks of weight and low peak specifications central to performance in sport. [3]

In 1931, Clessie installed his diesel in a race hitting 162 km/h at Daytona and 138 at the Indianapolis 500 race, where Evans drove it to thirteenth by finishing the entire race a pit stop, relying on torque and efficiency to overcome weight and low power. [4]

In 1933, A 1925 with a Gardner 4LW engine was the diesel-engine car to take part in the Carlo Rally when it was by Lord Howard de Clifford. It was the British car and finished fifth [5]

In 1952, Fred Agabashian won the position at the Indianapolis 500 race a turbocharged 6.6-liter Cummins car, setting a record for position lap speed at 222.108 or 138.010 mph. [6]. Agabashian found himself in place before reaching the turn, he moved up to fifth in a few and was running competitively until the situated air intake of the car swallowed debris from the track to the turbocharger at lap 71; he finished 27th. [7]

turbocharged diesel cars stronger in the 1990s, they also entered in touring car and BMW even won the 24 Hours Nürburgring in with a 320d, against factory-entered diesel competition of and about 200 normally powered Alfa Romeo even a racing series with Alfa Romeo 147 1.9 JTD models.

The VW Rally entrants for 2005 and are powered by their own line of TDI in order to challenge for the first diesel win there. Meanwhile, the time 24 Hours of Le Mans Audi R8 race car was replaced by the R10 in 2006, which is powered by a 650 hp kW) and 1100 N•m (810 lbf•ft) V12 TDI rail diesel engine, to a 5-speed gearbox, instead of the 6 in the R8, to handle the extra torque The gearbox is considered the main as earlier attempts by others due to the lack of suitable transmissions could stand the torque enough.

After winning the 12 of Sebring in 2006 with diesel-powered R10, Audi the overall win at the 2006 24 Hours of Le too. This is the first a sports car can compete for overall with diesel fuel cars powered with fuel or methanol and bio-ethanol. the significance of this is slightly by the fact that the ACO/ALMS rules encourage the use of alternative such as diesel.

Audi triumphed at Sebring in 2007. It had a speed and fuel economy over the entire field the Porsche RS Spyder’s which are purpose-built race cars. the Sebring win it’s safe to say Audi’s diesels will win the 24 Hours of Le Mans again year. The only competition from Peugeot’s diesel 908 racer. But that car has not turned a in a race.

In 2006, the JCB Dieselmax the diesel land speed posting an average speed of 328 mph. The vehicle used two engines that have a total of 1,500 horsepower kilowatts). Each is a 4-cylinder, engine used commercially as a loader. [8] [9]


With a poor power-to-weight ratio, engines are generally unsuited to use in a which requires high light weight and a fast-revving However, in the 1980s NATO in Europe standardized all their to diesel power. Some had of motorcycles, and so trials were with diesel engines for Air-cooled single-cylinder engines by Lombardini of Italy were and had some success, achieving performance to petrol bikes and usage of nearly 200 miles per This led to some countries their bikes with power.

Development by Cranfield University and Hayes Diversified Technologies led to the of a diesel powered off road based on the running gear of a KLR650 petrol-engine trail for military use. The engine of the motorcycle is a liquid cooled, cylinder four- stroke displaces 584 cm_ and produces 21 kW (28 bhp) a top speed of 85mph (136 Hayes Diversified Technologies but has subsequently delayed, the delivery of a version for approx US $19,000. compared to comparable models.

In the United States Marine adopted the M1030M1, a dirtbike on the Kawasaki KLR650 and modified an engine designed to run on diesel or JP8 jet Since other United tactical vehicles like the utility vehicle and M1 Abrams use JP8, adopting a scout which runs on the same made sense from a standpoint.

In India. motorcycles by Royal Enfield can be bought 650 cm_ single-cylinder diesel engines on the similar petrol (gasoline) used, due to the fact that is much cheaper than and of higher reliability. These are noisy and unrefined, but very due to their reliability and economy.

and future developments

Already, common rail and unit systems employ new injectors stacked piezoelectric crystals in of a solenoid, which gives control of the injection event.

geometry turbochargers have vanes, which move and let air into the engine depending on This technology increases performance and fuel economy. lag is reduced as turbo impeller is compensated for.

Accelerometer control (APC) uses an to provide feedback on the engine’s of noise and vibration and thus the ECU to inject the minimum amount of that will produce combustion and still provide the power (especially while

The next generation of common diesels is expected to use variable geometry, which allows the of fuel injected to be varied a wider range, and variable timing similar to that on engines.

Particularly in the United coming tougher emissions present a considerable challenge to engine manufacturers. Other to achieve even more combustion, such as HCCI charge compression ignition) are studied.

Modern diesel

(Source: Robert Bosch

Fuel passes through the jets at speeds of nearly miles-per-hour (2400 km/h)

is injected into the combustion in less than 1.5 ms—about as as a camera flashes.

The smallest of fuel injected is one cubic the same volume as the head of a The largest injection quantity at the for automobile diesel engines is 70 cubic millimeters.

If the crankshaft of a engine is turning at 4,500 the injection system has to control and 225 injection-cycles-per-second.

On a demonstration drive, a 1-liter diesel-powered car used 0.89 liters of fuel in 100 kilometers (112.36 km/l, 264 mpg , 317 mpg ) – it probably the most fuel-efficient car in the Bosch’s high-pressure fuel system was one of the main factors the prototype’s extremely low fuel Production record-breakers in fuel include the Volkswagen Lupo 3 L TDI and the A2 3 L 1.2 TDI with standard consumption of 3 liters of fuel per 100 kilometers km/l, 78 mpg , 94 mpg ). Their high-pressure injection systems are also by Bosch.

In 2001, nearly 36 of newly registered cars in Europe had diesel engines. By way of in 1996, diesel-powered cars up only 15 percent of the new car registrations in Austria leads the league of registrations of diesel-powered cars 66 percent, followed by Belgium 63 percent and Luxembourg with 58 Germany, with 34.6 in 2001, was in the middle of the league Sweden is lagging behind, in only 8 percent of the new cars had a engine (in Sweden, diesel are much more heavily than equivalent gasoline

Diesel car history

The first diesel cars were the 260D and the Hanomag Rekord, introduced in 1936. The Citroën was also produced between and 1937 with an extremely diesel engine option 1766 cc 11UD engine) in the Familiale (estate or station version. [10]

Following the oil crisis, turbodiesels were (for example, by the Mercedes-Benz experimental and record-setting vehicles). The production turbo diesel car in 1978, the 3.0 5-cyl 115 HP (86 kW) Mercedes 300 SD, only in North America. In the Peugeot 604 with a 2.3 liter diesel was introduced in 1979, and the Mercedes 300 TD turbo.

Many enthusiasts claim that the 100 TDI was the first turbo-charged direct diesel sold in 1989, but is incorrect, as the Fiat Croma was sold with turbo injection in 1986 and two years Austin Rover Montego.

was pioneering about the Audi however, was the use of electronic control of the as the Fiat and Austin had purely controlled injection. The electronic of direct injection made a difference in terms of emissions, and power.

It is interesting to see that the big in the diesel car market are the same who pioneered various developments BMW, Peugeot /Citroën, Alfa Romeo, Volkswagen with the exception of Austin Austin Rover’s ancestor, The Motor Company had been small-capacity diesel engines 1956, when it introduced a cm_ 4-cylinder diesel engine for its Rover 4 _ 4.

In 1998, for the very time in the history of racing, in the 24 Hours Nürburgring race, a car was the overall winner: the BMW works 320d, a BMW E36 fitted with high-pressure diesel injection from Robert Bosch The low fuel consumption and long allowing 4 hours of racing at made it a winner, as comparable cars spent more refueling.

In 2006, the new Audi R10 TDI entered by Joest Racing the first diesel-engined car to win the 24 Hours of Le The winning car also bettered the course configuration lap record by 1, at However, this fell of the all-time distance record set in by over 200 km.

See also


Challen, Bernard, and Rodica 1999. Diesel Engine Book. 2nd ed. Bistin, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. 0750621761 .

Dempsey, Paul. How to Repair Diesel Engines. 2nd ed. New NY: TAB Books. ISBN 0830661670 .

Andrei. 2002. Diesel Engineering: Thermodynamics, Dynamics, and Control Mechanical Engineering. Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN .

Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI
Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI
Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI
Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI

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